Overview

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Documentation for version: v1.2

Data validation and settings management using python type annotations.

pydantic enforces type hints at runtime, and provides user friendly errors when data is invalid.

Define how data should be in pure, canonical python; validate it with pydantic.

Version 0.32 Documentation

This documentation refers to Version 1 of pydantic which has just been released, v0.32.2 (the previous release) docs are available here.

Example🔗

from datetime import datetime
from typing import List
from pydantic import BaseModel

class User(BaseModel):
    id: int
    name = 'John Doe'
    signup_ts: datetime = None
    friends: List[int] = []

external_data = {
    'id': '123',
    'signup_ts': '2019-06-01 12:22',
    'friends': [1, 2, '3']
}
user = User(**external_data)
print(user.id)
print(repr(user.signup_ts))
print(user.friends)
print(user.dict())

(This script is complete, it should run "as is")

What's going on here:

  • id is of type int; the annotation-only declaration tells pydantic that this field is required. Strings, bytes or floats will be coerced to ints if possible; otherwise an exception will be raised.
  • name is inferred as a string from the provided default; because it has a default, it is not required.
  • signup_ts is a datetime field which is not required (and takes the value None if it's not supplied). pydantic will process either a unix timestamp int (e.g. 1496498400) or a string representing the date & time.
  • friends uses python's typing system, and requires a list of inputs. As with id, integer-like objects will be converted to integers.

If validation fails pydantic will raise an error with a breakdown of what was wrong:

from pydantic import ValidationError

try:
    User(signup_ts='broken', friends=[1, 2, 'not number'])
except ValidationError as e:
    print(e.json())

outputs:

[
  {
    "loc": [
      "id"
    ],
    "msg": "field required",
    "type": "value_error.missing"
  },
  {
    "loc": [
      "signup_ts"
    ],
    "msg": "invalid datetime format",
    "type": "value_error.datetime"
  },
  {
    "loc": [
      "friends",
      2
    ],
    "msg": "value is not a valid integer",
    "type": "type_error.integer"
  }
]

Rationale🔗

So pydantic uses some cool new language features, but why should I actually go and use it?

plays nicely with your IDE/linter/brain
There's no new schema definition micro-language to learn. If you know how to use python type hints, you know how to use pydantic. Data structures are just instances of classes you define with type annotations, so auto-completion, linting, mypy, IDEs (especially PyCharm), and your intuition should all work properly with your validated data.
dual use
pydantic's BaseSettings class allows pydantic to be used in both a "validate this request data" context and in a "load my system settings" context. The main differences are that system settings can be read from environment variables, and more complex objects like DSNs and python objects are often required.
fast
In benchmarks pydantic is faster than all other tested libraries.
validate complex structures
use of recursive pydantic models, typing's standard types (e.g. List, Tuple, Dict etc.) and validators allow complex data schemas to be clearly and easily defined, validated, and parsed.
extensible
pydantic allows custom data types to be defined or you can extend validation with methods on a model decorated with the validator decorator.
dataclasses integration
As well as BaseModel, pydantic provides a dataclass decorator which creates (almost) vanilla python dataclasses with input data parsing and validation.

Using Pydantic🔗

Hundreds of organisations and packages are using pydantic, including:

FastAPI
a high performance API framework, easy to learn, fast to code and ready for production, based on pydantic and Starlette.
Project Jupyter
developers of the Jupyter notebook are using pydantic for subprojects.
Microsoft
are using pydantic (via FastAPI) for numerous services, some of which are "getting integrated into the core Windows product and some Office products."
Amazon Web Services
are using pydantic in gluon-ts, an open-source probabilistic time series modeling library.
The NSA
are using pydantic in WALKOFF, an open-source automation framework.
Uber
are using pydantic in Ludwig, an an open-source TensorFlow wrapper.
Cuenca
are a Mexican neobank that uses pydantic for several internal tools (including API validation) and for open source projects like stpmex, which is used to process real-time, 24/7, inter-bank transfers in Mexico.
The Molecular Sciences Software Institute
are using pydantic in QCFractal, a massively distributed compute framework for quantum chemistry.

For a more comprehensive list of open-source projects using pydantic see the list of dependents on github.

Testimonials🔗

Python Bytes Podcast
"This is a sweet simple framework that solves some really nice problems... Data validations and settings management using python type annotations, and it's the python type annotations that makes me really extra happy... It works automatically with all the IDE's you already have." --Michael Kennedy